Diarrhea is a common condition that involves loose, watery bowel movements that occur more frequently than usual.  Diarrhea causes include a range of factors, including viral and bacterial infections (gastroenteritis), food intolerances or allergies, and certain medications. In Singapore, viral gastroenteritis is commonly known as “stomach flu”. Diarrhea treatment involves finding the cause of the diarrhea.

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Diarrhea Causes

One of the most common causes of diarrhea is gastroenteritis, which is inflammation of the stomach and intestines. This can be caused by viruses such as norovirus or rotavirus, as well as bacteria such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Other causes of diarrhea may include inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease, and lactose intolerance.

Diarrhea can also be a side effect of certain medications, such as antibiotics, antacids, and chemotherapy drugs. Additionally, stress, and changes in diet or routine can contribute to the development of diarrhea. Over-the-counter medications such as probiotics may also be used to reduce the frequency of bowel movements and alleviate symptoms


The treatment of diarrhea depends on the underlying cause of the condition. For mild cases, it is usually recommended to increase fluid intake and rest until the symptoms subside.

In addition to treatment, preventing diarrhea can also be important. One effective method of prevention is vaccination. For example, vaccinating babies with the rotavirus vaccine can help to prevent rotavirus, a common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. The rotavirus vaccine is given orally and is effective at preventing rotavirus infection and the diarrhea that it can cause.

In conclusion, diarrhea is a common condition that can be caused by a range of factors, including viral and bacterial infections, food intolerances or allergies, and certain medications. Effective treatment depends on understanding the underlying cause of the condition, and may include medication, dietary changes, or rest.

With proper treatment and management, most cases of diarrhea can be successfully treated, allowing individuals to return to their daily activities.